Science Chile  CHILE 19/01/2018

Earliest galaxies in the Universe’s history spun like the Milky Way

The results are reported in the journal 'Nature', and will be presented at the 231st meeting of the American Astronomical Society

Astronomers have looked back to a time soon after the Big Bang, and have discovered swirling gas in some of the earliest galaxies to have formed in the Universe. These ‘newborns’ – observed as they appeared nearly 13 billion years ago – spun like a whirlpool, similar to our own Milky Way.

 
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Science Spain  MADRID 18/01/2018

New power generation and propulsion system for satellites

Researchers at the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) and the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid have designed and patented a new propellantless system

Researchers at the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) and the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid have designed and patented a new propellantless system for satellites that allows generation of electric power and on-board thrust. This innovation, which has led to two national patents, has attracted the interest of the European Space Agency and of the space industry.

 
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Science Argentina  BUENOS AIRES 10/01/2018

Scientists are concerned about the preservation of a rare spider of the range of Buenos Aires

Its habitat can be threatened by the invasion of exotic species, tourism and agricultural and livestock activities

The “bricklayer spiders” [Calathotarsus simoni] are some of the most enigmatic species of the Argentine fauna: one species was described for the first time in 1975 and they had only been observed occasionally in specific regions of the range system of Ventania and Tandilia, in the province of Buenos Aires. Now, detailed analyses of the habitat of these arachnids suggest that they are exposed to environmental threats that could reduce their population or even affect their survival in the coming years.

 
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Science Spain  ÁVILA 20/12/2017

A system to detect deformations in state of the art materials

Researchers at the Polytechnic School of Ávila from the University of Salamanca have applied photogrammetry algorithms and computational vision to determine state of the art material's behavior when tested

Researchers at the Polytechnic School of Ávila from the University of Salamanca have developed a new system able to detect deformations in estate of the art materials. By using photogrammetry algorithms and computational vision scientist can identify relevant modifications for objects stability. To test their new methodology they have applied to a Proof of Concept project that focuses on fire extinguishers deformations.

 
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Science Chile  CHILE 19/12/2017

Massive primordial galaxies found swimming in vast ocean of dark matter

The researchers report their findings in the journal 'Nature'

Astronomers expect that the first galaxies, those that formed just a few hundred million years after the Big Bang, would share many similarities with some of the dwarf galaxies we see in the nearby Universe today. These early agglomerations of a few billion stars would then become the building blocks of the larger galaxies that came to dominate the Universe after the first few billion years.

 
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Science Spain  SALAMANCA 13/12/2017

A new catalyst to produce the biodiesel of the future

Researchers at the University of Salamanca test a catalyst to produce biodiesel more efficiently and economically in accordance with the requirements imposed by the regulations for the coming years

Researchers at the University of Salamanca have designed a new type of catalyst to obtain biodiesel. The requirements established by the regulations for coming years make the current biodiesel production processes both expensive and inefficient, while this new proposal has many advantages. Through a proof of concept, scientists are demonstrating that the idea can be developed on an industrial scale.

 
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Science Panama  PANAMÁ 13/12/2017

Sumatran tigers cling to survival in fragmented forests

The study, published in the journal 'Nature Communications', was funded by the National Geographic Society

A research expedition tracked endangered tigers through the Sumatran jungles for a year and found tigers are clinging to survival in low density populations. Their findings have renewed fears about the possible extinction of the elusive predators.

 
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Science Spain  MADRID 11/12/2017

Artificial Intelligence and accessible theater for the deaf and blind

Researchers at the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) have developed pioneering technology, called Stage-sync, so that people with visual and auditory impairment can enjoy musical stage shows.

This new technology from UC3M’s SoftLab research group has been implemented to give accessibility to the Broadway musical comedy “The Addams Family” at the Teatro Calderón of Madrid. The creative agency C&W, COMUNICAdos and Escena Global also collaborated on the project, which received support from the Consejería de Educación e Innovación (Council for Education and Innovation) of the Autonomous Community of Madrid. Thanks to this project, individuals with visual and auditory impairment have been able to enjoy any of the performances of this musical comedy since the 3rd of December, the International Day of Persons with Disabilities. This means that over one million deaf people in Spain can, for the first time in their lives, attend an important, high-quality musical such as this.

 
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Science Argentina  ARGENTINA 11/12/2017

New consortium to work on AIDS-related tumors

Researchers from the Fundación Huésped, and the University of Miami formed an international consortium funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study this subject.

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) under the scope of the NIH has recently announced the granting of a funding program for the international consortium formed by Argentine and USA researchers to study human cancer subjects related to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

 
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Science Spain  SALAMANCA 05/12/2017

Clays to improve industrial waters treatment

Researcher from the University of Salamanca disigne a contaminants adsorbent system to be implemented in pharmaceutical and food industries

Although industries must treat contaminated water before releasing this pollutants to the environment, the current technology does not completely eliminate some substances coming from the pharmaceutical and food industries. Researchers of the University of Salamanca have tested a new system that can be implemented into current WWTP, using clay columns as an adsorption system.

 
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Science Spain  ESPAÑA 05/12/2017

Europe will need to change its diet to address climate change and health

New report from European science academies calls for urgent action on food and nutrition security

Scientists from national academies across Europe are calling for urgent action on food and nutrition in a new rigorous and independent report published today by the European Academies’ Science Advisory Council (EASAC). This thorough analysis has implications for policy-makers working on food, nutrition, health, the environment, climate change, and agriculture. Combating malnutrition in all its forms – undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies as well as overweight and obesity – is a problem faced by all countries. Research and innovation will be central to finding solutions to these local-global and multidisciplinary, interconnected challenges. Evidence must underpin the policies that deliver Europe’s future approach to these issues. The report recommends being more ambitious in identifying and using scientific opportunities: how the current evidence base can shape understanding of both supply- and demand-side challenges, and how the research agenda should be defined, including basic research, to fill knowledge gaps.

 
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Science Chile  ATACAMA 01/12/2017

ALMA discovers infant stars surprisingly near galaxy’s supermassive black hole

The results are published in the 'Astrophysical Journal Letters'

At the center of our galaxy, in the immediate vicinity of its supermassive black hole, is a region wracked by powerful tidal forces and bathed in intense ultraviolet light and X-ray radiation. These harsh conditions, astronomers surmise, do not favor star formation, especially low-mass stars like our Sun. Surprisingly, new observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) suggest otherwise.

 
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Science Spain  MADRID 01/12/2017

New system uses drones to monitor railroads

This innovation makes it possible to reduce costs and increase the train safety

SigmaRail, a company supported by the Universidad Carlos III Science Park, has created a system that uses drones and a new computer program to make automatic inspections of railroads. This innovation, which geolocates possible incidents on rail corridors, makes it possible to reduce costs and increase the train safety.

 
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Science Spain  SALAMANCA 30/11/2017

New perforated plate for chemical industries

A research project from the University of Salamanca improves the efficiency of processes such as distillation and absorption in chemical industries

Researchers at the University of Salamanca have developed a new design for perforated plates. Metal plates with holes that are usually integrated in the facilities of various chemical industries specialised in compounds separation processes, such as distillation and absorption. Through a proof of concept, scientists have demonstrated experimentally that the model they propose is more efficient than conventional dishes.

 

 

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Science Spain  SALAMANCA 23/11/2017

A tool to classify political opinions on Twitter

The University of Salamanca has developed a real-time tuit classifier that works in the cloud through an automatic learning process

Social networks have become a prime space for public debate and among them Twitter especially stands out in the field of politics. Some computer tools already analyze trends and opinions. The University of Salamanca has developed a messages classifier that allows to know in real time the positive and negative evaluations of the users.

 
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Science Panama  PANAMÁ 21/11/2017

Tropical tree roots represent an underappreciated carbon pool

The authors hope that future estimates of carbon storage and water-use by tropical forests will include information on root biomass and architecture

Ask someone to draw a tree and they will invariably draw a trunk and branches—leaving the roots out of the picture. In a unique study of tropical tree roots at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute published in PLOS ONE, roots accounted for almost 30 percent of the total biomass of young trees. The authors hope that future estimates of carbon storage and water-use by tropical forests will include information on root biomass and architecture.

 
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Science Spain  MADRID 14/11/2017

¿Why can hot water freeze faster than cold water?

Spanish researchers have discovered this effect in granular media, opening the door to the theoretical understanding of the Mpemba effect

A team of researchers from Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, the Universidad de Extremadura and the Universidad de Sevilla have defined a theoretical framework that could explain the Mpemba effect, a counterintuitive physical phenomenon revealed when hot water freezes faster than cold water.

 
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Science Chile  ATACAMA 14/11/2017

Duo of titanic galaxies captured in extreme starbursting merger

The ADFS-27 galaxy pair is located approximately 12.7 billion light-years from Earth in the direction of the Dorado constellation

New observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have uncovered the never-before-seen close encounter between two astoundingly bright and spectacularly massive galaxies in the early Universe. These so-called hyper-luminous starburst galaxies are exceedingly rare at this epoch of cosmic history — near the time when galaxies first formed — and may represent one of the most-extreme examples of violent star formation ever observed.

 
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Science Venezuela  VENEZUELA 13/11/2017

Stop using antibiotics in healthy animals to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance

A systematic review published today in 'The Lancet Planetary Health' found that interventions that restrict antibiotic use in food-producing animals reduced antibiotic-resistant bacteria in these animals by up to 39%

WHO is recommending that farmers and the food industry stop using antibiotics routinely to promote growth and prevent disease in healthy animals. The new WHO recommendations aim to help preserve the effectiveness of antibiotics that are important for human medicine by reducing their unnecessary use in animals. In some countries, approximately 80% of total consumption of medically important antibiotics is in the animal sector, largely for growth promotion in healthy animals.

 

 
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Science Argentina  ARGENTINA 08/11/2017

Untangling the family tree of the main groups of dinosaurs

The result was published in Nature in response to the March publication in which the English researchers had proposed a radical change in the family tree of the lineage of those prehistorical animals

In March 2017, a research team led by Matthew Baron of the University of Cambridge published a study in Nature. The scientists had proposed a radical revision on the understanding of the early evolution of dinosaurs and the family tree relationship among them. They suggested that the traditional classification between Ornithischia –bird hipped- and Saurischia – lizard hipped-, was modified.

 
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